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Meeting of the Oriental Numismatic Society in Jena 17/18 April 1999

       The annual meeting of collectors and professionals led this year, for the first time to Jena in Thuringia, Germany, which, with its Oriental Coin Cabinet, has a more than 200 year old tradition of Islamic numismatics. About 40 participants gathered from Germany, the Netherlands, France, Switzerland, Greece, Turkey, Egypt, Uzbekistan and the USA. The meeting had been organised by Stefan Heidemann and Tobias Mayer from the Institute of Languages and Cultures of the Near East at the Friedrich-Schiller-University. The participants were warmly welcomed by the director of the Oriental Coin Cabinet and Professor for Semitic Philology and Islamic Science in Jena, Norbert Nebes. In particular, Mr. and Mrs. Tzamalis, from the Greek Numismatic Society and Celil Ender from the Turkish Numismatic Society were welcomed as representatives of other numismatic societies

       Larissa Baratowa, Tashkent: Old Turkic Coins of Central Asia: Un-Iconongraphic Types
       The Old Turkic coins follow the principal design of the Chinese cash: a square hole in the center with inscriptions at its sides. The definition ‘Old Turkic’ derives from the names and titles which appear in the legends. These coins can be devided into classes, groups and types. The following picture emerges if we take into consideration the topography and stratigraphy of finds:

I. - Coins of the „Turgesh circle": groups A, B, C - Semirech’e (=Jety-Su), from the end of the 7th century AD.
II. - Turgesh coins: group A - consisting of seven types - Semirech’e - after 730s.
III. - Coins with Turkic names and titles: group A, B, C, D - some cities of Soghd, Chach, Ferghana and Semirech’e - from the end of the 7th to the middle of the 8th century.
IV. - Coins of anonymous Khaqans: groups A, B, C, D - Soghd, Chach, Ferghana - around the middle of the 8th century.
V - „Proto-Qarakhanid" coins: group A - Semirech’e - the 9th - 10th century.
       The script and language of the inscriptions are Soghdian, with the exception of the „Proto-Qarakhanid" coins, which carry Kufic legends. The appearance of coins with inscriptions on both sides (one mentions the Turgesh Khaqan and the other referring to the local Soghdian ruler) within ‘Class I’ reflects the political dependance of the Soghdian colonies on the Turgesh Khaqans. This led Mrs. Baratova to suggest that the Turgesh coins, which are known from finds throughout Central Asia, were produced under the influence of those cities. Some Turgesh coin-types were obviously issued by representatives of the Qarluq Dynasty, which came to power in Semirech’e after 766 AD.
       The coins of ‘Class III’ were cast by Old Turkic rulers in Soghd and Chach. Mrs. Baratova reported on the Turkish rulers according to the Chinese chronicles.
       An important question remains: who was responsible for the issue of the anonymous coins of ‘Class IV’ with the title ‘Khaqan’? The answer to this question can be found if one takes into consideration the distribution of finds as well as the traditions of Turkic statehood and the general background provided by Central Asian history. It can be assumed that the coins of ‘Class IV’ were issued by Turkic sovereigns, which ruled for a short time over certain areas of Soghd and Chach. The title g’g’n (Khaqan) was used as a counterpart to the Soghdian title xw’b (Xwabu = ‘lord, ruler’), which was common on the coins of Central Asia from the 6th to the 8th century. The relatively low number of Turkic coins found in Soghd, Chach and Ferghana is due to the chronological limits of this coinage - it was terminated by the Arab conquest of Mawara¦annahr and the consequent introduction of new kinds of coins. In Semirech’e, however, the issue of Old Turkic coins continues into the 9th to 10th century developing into the transitional ‘Proto-Qarakhanid’ coinage with Chinese fabric and Kufic inscriptions.

       Aleksandr Naymark, Bloomington, Indiana: Some observations on Bukhar Khuda coins
       Coins reproducing the design of the drachms of Varahran V were used as the silver currency in the realm of Bukhara from the 5th to the 11th century C.E. In scholarly literature they are known as Bukhar Khuda drachms/dirhams - the conventional name derived from Lerch’s outdated reading of the most common version of the Bukharan Soghdian legend.
       This report addressed three separate issues connected with the three successive stages in this coinage.
       a) Imitations of the Marv drachms of Varahran V with distorted Pahlavi legends - 5th and 6th centuries. Although these coins are well known, no sufficiently detailed typology has been produced up to now. Moreover, the earliest known specimens of the next stage with Bukharan legend do not follow the latest of these imitations, but rather copy the design of the coins, which occupy a position somewhere in the middle of the typological series. In the absence of decisive data three explanations remain: 1. There were two parallel series of imitations, one of which had been minted in Bukhara and resulted in the appearance of those coins with the Bukharan legend, while another series represents the issues of an unknown centre. 2. Coins with the Bukharan legend branched out from the middle stage of the coinage of an unknown centre. 3. The engraver who designed the first coins with the Bukharan legend selected as a pattern an earlier specimen instead of taking a contemporary coin.
       b) Bukhar Khuda drachms with the remains of a distorted Pahlavi and three different Soghdian legends - 7th to the middle of the 8th century. A provisional chronology of the five distinguishable types: (1) The earliest type carries the Soghdian legend: pwx’r xw’b k’n/w’ - „The Lord King of Bukhara" or „Kana, the Lord of Bukhara" (Henning; Livshits). A comparison of the palaeography and the titles with those of Bukharan copper issues allowed the speaker to suggest the interval between the middle of the 6th and the very beginning of the 7th century as being the most plausible time for the appearance of this legend. (2) Around the middle of the 7th century a new type was introduced which carried a longer inscription: pwx’r xr’’n xw’b r/b/k’’r/b/k. (3) The succeeding issues, however, return to the shorter form of the legend. During the second half of the 7th century Bukhar Khuda drachms accumulated mistakes as if they were imitational coinage. By the beginning of the 8th century the process resulted in the appearance of a variety which is called, on the basis of its prominent findspot, ‘Mug drachms’: large, thin flans with low quality images surrounded by relatively broad, plain margins. (4) The next type, introduced in the 730s or early 740s, inherited some elements of the ‘Mug drachms’, but some of its features are derived from the earlier coins of the first half of the 7th century. (5) Sometime between 738 and the early 750s, the Samarqand ruler Turgar issued drachms with his name instead of the Bukharan legend (Smirnova). c) Bukhar Khuda dirhams with various Arabic legends, some of these in combination with the distorted Bukharan legend, - 850s to the beginning of the 11th century or possibly even later. The metal of all Bukhar Khuda dirhams is characterised by a low silver content, although the surface looks as though is it of quite fine silver. Analyses of fragments of Bukhar Khuda coins from the Kum Sovtan finds, which M. Ravich kindly undertook in 1989 at the request of the speaker, showed that this effect was achieved by the chemical process of surface enrichment.

       M. Feodorov, Ilmenau: The Jalalabad hoard of Qarakhanid dirhams (1009-1039) as a source for history
       About 1970 a hoard was found in Jalalabad, a city in the easternmost part of the Ferghana valley within the Kirghiz Republic. About a quarter of a century later it was sold to A. Kamyshev, a dealer in in antiques in the capital, Bishkek, and to V. Kosherov. It comprised 117 coins minted between 400-430/1009-1039. Ninety specimens or 77% were struck in Uzgend: AH 400 (1), 404 (1), 421 (24), 422 (12), 423 (6), 42[1-3] (25), 424 (1), 425 (4), 426 (4), 427 (5), 428 (5), 429 (1), 430 (1); Akhsiket, 13 coins, about 11%: AH 403 (1), 415 (1), 422 (1), 423 (2), 42x (2), 427 (3), 429 (1), 430 (1), 4xx (1); Kasan, 7 coins: AH 421 (1), 422 (1), 423 (1), 42x (4); Marghinan, 3 coins: AH 423 (1), 429 (1), 430 (1); Khojende: AH 428 (2); Khogend (Khokend?): AH 419 (1); Kashghar: AH 411 (1).
       The Jalalabad hoard is an interesting and informative source on the history of the Ferghana valley between 1028-1039. According to the coins, the city of Uzgend was in the hands of the Western Qarakhanid ruler ‘Adud al-Daula Kuch Tegin in the years 421/1030 to 423/1031-2. There he minted coins as a vassal of the supreme Khan of the Eastern Qarakhanids, Qadir Khan (I) Yusuf b. Harun, whose capital was Kashghar. After the death of Qadir Khan (I) Yusuf, Kuch Tegin struck coins as an independent ruler in Uzgend in the year 424/1032-3 and partly in 425/1033-4. However in the year 425 he lost the city to Qadir Khan (II) Sulayman b. Harun, a brother of Qadir Khan (I) Yusuf. Also Qadir Khan (II) minted coins in Uzgend between 425 and 429/1037-8 as an independent ruler. In 430/1038-9 a new ruler appeared on the coins of Uzgend: Tongha Khan, who was another brother of Qadir Khan (I) Yusuf. He also minted as independent ruler. The coins of Akhsiket, Kasan, Marghinan and Khojend provide further interesting information on other Qarakhanid appanage rulers of the Ferghana region and their suzerains of this very period.

       Stefan Heidemann, Jena: The Dirham hoard of Murom on the river Oka
       In April 1868 a hoard of 42 kg or about 14,600 Dirhams was discovered at Murom on the Oka, an tributory of the Volga. The terminal date is 328/940. The hoard was dispersed in several small collections sent to various museums and coin cabinets. The majority of the coins, however, about 83%, were melted down. Thus by far largest hoard dirham hoard ever discovered in Europe disappeared. Johann Gustav Stickel was able to get for the Oriental Coin Cabinet in Jena the largest group of 556 coins, which was obviously intended to represent the whole hoard. The present speaker and Thomas Noonan, Minneapolis, reconstructed the hoard on the basis of the lists of coins sent to the various museums found in the archives of Jena and St. Petersburg and analysed the position of the hoard among the other contemporary coin finds. In its composition, the Murom hoard is similar to the other hoards of around 328/940 shortly before the peak of Viking age trade, and is well representative of the circulation of coins within the Volga area. Murom was a settlement of Finno-Ugric tribes under the sway of the Rus in the border region facing the realm of the Volga-Bulghars. The hoard highlighted the importance of Murom as a trading centre on the road between Central Asia via Bulghar on the Volga to Staraja Ladoga, the main trading post of the Rus/Vikings near the Baltic See.

       Lutz Ilisch, TØbingen: Hares and ravens on coins of the Mongol period
       The representation of hares and rabbits is to be found in Islamic art from early times onwards with an occasional appearance on coins in the 10th century. Only in the second half of the 13th century under Ilkhanid Mongol domination did they become frequent, especially on the copper coins from the mint of Irbil. It is possible to offer a variety of explanations for this bearing in mind the medieval Islamic environment, such as symbols of cunning and power, as a celestial constellation or as part of the Mongol animal cycle. However for most of the Ilkhanid coins a derivation from Far Eastern mythology as a symbol of the moon can be proven. The combination of the hare and the moon is in fact to be found on coppers from Irbil in 661/1262-3 and ca. 710/716-1310/1316. More decisive evidence is the parallel issues of silver coins with the image of the hare and those with the image of its counterpart, the sun raven, under the Ilkhan, Arghun. Both representations originate from the same Far Eastern mythological context. The hare and the raven are thus an iconographic variety of the more familiar moon-man or moon-face and sun-lion or sun-face found on many Mongol period coins. It was pointed out that in some rare cases the hare or rabbit may refer to a rabbit year, especially during the late Mongol and Safavid periods. Special reference was made to one particular variety of coin image, which depicts three hares connected by their ears in a circle, as this motif was adopted around 1300 AD by Christian iconography as a symbol for the rotation of the sun and the moon around the world.

       Johann-Christoph Hinrichs, Bremen: Influence of the Shi`a on Ilkhanid Coins
       Perhaps the most fascinating revelation of Hinrichs' paper was the fact, that religious formula on the coins did not always follow the official standards, i.e. coins from al-Jazira and from Akhlat, minted in the name of Ghazan Mahmud (1295-1304 AD), who was a follower of the Sunna, sometimes show the formula `ali wali allah, which is a Shi`ite formula. On the other hand there are coins from the Shi`ite time of Uljaytu (1304-1316 AD) which bear the name of the four rashidun, typical of Sunnite coins. Even coins with a Sunnite and Shi`ite formula on the same side of the coin exist. It is often the case that the Shi`ite inscriptions on coins from Anatolia are blundered or are just omitted as a kind of opposition against the hated Mongols.
       In the times of Abu Sa`id (1316-1335 AD) who had returned to the Sunnite branch of the Islam, only a single coin from Ruyan bears the Shi`ite formula `ali wali allah and the names of the twelve Shi`ite imams, but there exist dinars and dirhems from Shiraz with the formula `ali wali allah concealed on them, together with the names of the four rashidun.
       In the times of Togha Timur (1338-1351 AD) Shi`ite and Sunnite coins were minted side by side in Rayy, Jurjan and Amul. Togha Timur himself was a Sunni.
(A print of the paper (26 pages) is availabe in German which can be ordered from J.C. Hinrichs, Adlerstr. 11, D-28203, price 3 Euro or equivalent).

       Dietrich SchnÄdelbach, Berlin: The AkÚe of Sulayman úelebi From the year 806/1406 Sulayman úelebi had AkÚe struck in his part of the Ottoman realm. Most of the coins bear on the obverse the tughra of the ruler within a circle and on the reverse the formular khallada mulkahu above the date 806 within a square. Around the square are the names of the four rashidun caliphs, all within a circle. This series had four different types of the tughra on the obverse; there may also be a fifth. Within the tughra there can be no or one to seven dots, and, very rarely eight dots. First hypothesis: The number of dots equals the number of regnal-years: 0 = 806 to 7 = 813 or 1= 806 to 8 = 813. This hypothesis was tested: If the number of dots represents the regnal years, then the frequency of each type of coin should reflect what could be expected on the basis of known historical events. At the beginning and end of his reign Sulayman úelebi undertook a lot of military campaigns, for which a considerable output of coins could be expected. However the high point of production lay - according to the dots as an indication of the regnal years - at 4 dots, which would correspond to year 810. Two, three and five dots follow in frequency. The production at the beginning and end of the series of dots is minimal. Thus, the hypothesis of dots as regnal years is not very likely. Four dots seems to be an aesthetic optimum. The examination of the second hypothesis proves this first. The tughra types I to IV on the obverse reflect a logical sequence.
       ãlÚer named the variations of the reverse A to L. Some variations could be added to his list; these are labeled with the suffix "1" after the letter. These variations can be gathered up into groups, which can be named after the most frequent variation: group B (B, C, D, E1, F, L); group E (A, E, F1); group H (G, H); group I (I, I1) and group K (only K). An examination of stylistic characteristics - the frequency of specific characteristics is used as criteria - shows that groups B and E have many similarities in common, whereas groups H, I and especially K deviate from them and they also exhibit a lot of differences among each other. Moreover, it can be shown that the reverse groups underwent a stylistic development. These observations seem to imply: firstly that the reverse groups indicate certain mintplaces, because they have well defined characteristics. (An exception is formed by groups B and E which belong together, because of their great similarities). Secondly, the stylistic development of the reverse supports the assumption that the tughra-types I to IV reflect a straight chronological sequence. For quantitative and historical reasons together with the afore-mentioned similarities, the following mint attributions can be suggested: B and E are attributed to Edirne, H to Bursa, I to Serez and K remains unattributed.

       JØrgen Mikeska, Bad Homburg - Hans Wilski, Bad Soden: A Hoard from the period of Mehmed III (1003-1012/1594-1603)
       In the autumn of 1997 a hoard of silver coins arrived in Germany, which comprised 360 „Dirhams" (average weight 2.08g), 349 of them were minted under Mehmed III in Amid. All coins are badly struck, without showing the complete die. But because of their large number, a complete reconstruction of the coin designs could be made for the first time. Five different coin types could be distinguished. A relative chronology, hoever, could not be established. A highlight among the hoard was one of the extremely rare coins of Shamakhi in the Caucasus.

       Hadschi E. Yenisey, Trunau - Rolf Ehlert, Heidelberg: The introduction of the Para and Beshlik in Constantinople under Murad IV.
       According to Ottoman sources the para was introduced in Constantinople under the rule of Murad IV (1032-1049/1623-1640). The Grandvizier Qara Mustafa Kemankesh (1048-1052/1638-1642) sought a replacement for the akÚe denomination in circulation, which had at that time a reduced weight of only about 0.3g. I. Galib (Takvim i MeskØkat-i Osmaniye) published a coin (no. 499) with a weight of 4 ½ Carat (1.05g) and called it "para". In the meantime about 10 coins of this and another type (N. Pere, no. 435) within the same range of weights (ca. 1.05 - 1.23g) become known. Previously, Osman II (1027-1031/1618-1622) had introduced the onluk, which was worth 10 akÚe and had a weight of about 2.5 - 2.7g. Under Murad IV the onluk decreased in weight to about 2.4 - 2.5g. This made it likely that the afore-mentioned coins are not paras, but 5-akÚe pieces, beshliks. Against the identification as "para", is the fact that these coins have the double weight of the Egyptian prototype the para/maydin (ca. 0.6-0.7g). But then, what coins were the paras mentioned in the sources?
       A newly discovered coin, known from only one specimen, might perhaps confirm the written sources about the introduction of the para in Constantinople at the time of Murad IV and Qara Mustafa Kemankesh: mint Constantinople; accession year 1032; 0,707g; 15mm. Assuming this coin to be the afore-mentioned para of Constantinople, then only a maximum of 15 months were available for its production, between Shaan 1048/Dec. 1638 (appointment of Qara Mustafa Kemankesh) and Shawwal 1049/Feb. 1639 (death of Murad IV). This could explain its rarity nowadays. Ibrahim (1049-1058/1640-1648) continued to mint the para with the same weight and design (N. Pere, no. 437; 10 specimens known, 0.5 - 0.85g). This coin-type obviously did not succeed, presumably because of the easy confusion with the akÚe. Possibly its production was stopped after the assassination of the Grandvizier Kemankesh in 1052/1642. The successor of Ibrahim, Mehmed IV (1058-1099/1648-1687), minted paras in Constantinople, which follow in type and weight the Egyptian model, the maydin/para. This para-type was minted till 1115/1703-4 in Constantinople, Egypt and as well, in 1058/1648-9 in Belgrade.
       The speakers expressed their gratitude to Slobodan Sreckovic, Belgrade, who kindly supported the research for this presentation, notwithstanding the present situation.

       Celil Ender, Istanbul: The structure of the GØmØshhane mint in the years 1735-1736 and the Ottoman Kurush minted in those years
       GØmØshhane located on the Trabzon-Erzurum road is famous for its silver mines. From the time of the Ottoman conquest under Sulayman I (1520-1566) it hosted a mint. The honorific name of the mint was Dar al-faraj. The old name of the region was úatha. The city’s name on coins can appear as, ú×nÏÚe, Kh×nja and sometimes also as ú×tha. Nearby Erzurum was a prosperous trade city with a steady demand for coins. During the reign of Murad III (1574-1594) on 19 Jumada II 982 (September 26, 1574) it was decided to transfer the mint to Erzurum. One reason for this was the mint’s location outside the city (MØhimme Defterleri, vol. 33,8 Za 985 - p. 198, no. 401; vol. 26,19 Ca 982 - p. 199, no. 549). In the reign of Murad IV. (1623-1640) the coin production became centralised in Istanbul except for Tarablus Gharb and Tunus.
       In the reign of Mahmud I (1730-1754) in Muharram 1148 (May/June 1735) it was decided to re-establish a mint in GØmØshhane (Cevdet Darphane Classification, no. 2102). For the alloying of the coins 2,000 okkas, each comprising 1,284g of copper, were sent to the mint from the KØre/Kastamonu copper mines. This document allows us to calculate the number of coins. As the fineness of the kurush is 60%, 3,000 okka silver had to be added to the 2,000 okka of copper. The total weight of 6,420kg equals 253,000 kurush, each weighing 25.35g. Accordingly the capacity can be calculated as 800 kurush a day, which is low compared with the capacity of the mint in Istanbul with 100,000 kurush. A document (Cevdet Darphane Classification, no. 3170) dated on 22 Rabi I 1148 (August 1, 1735) deals with the internal organisation of the mint. This inventory note-book reports that the mint worked with horse power and dies and the mint-press was sent from Istanbul. In the very same year, on 22 Rabi I 1148, the GØmØshhane mint was closed and the supervisor of the mint, Saullah Bey, returned to Istanbul.

       Celil Ender, Istanbul: Three archival documents related to the Ottoman army mint
       Three documents from the Ottoman Archives provide important insight into the Ottoman Army Mint at the time of Mustafa II (1695-1703). The history of the „Imperial army mint (Orduyu HØmayÙn darphanesi)" goes back to the Great Seljuq empire. Although this mint seems to have been set up in order to meet the requirements of the armies, its establishment was rather due to the sikka-prerogative of the ruler, to have his name on the coinage as a sign of sovereignty. According to Mr. Ender the Ottoman Army Mint usually accompanied the army and produced coins with the names of the cities in which the army resided. Such names as Kastamonu, Erzurum, Gence, Nahcivan, DemirkÃprØ and Shemahi appearing on the coins of Murad III (1574-1595) during his Dagistan campaign can be taken as an indication for this. Although the establishment of an Imperial Army Mint by the Ottomans is known, its name does not occur on any coin except one gold piece of Mustafa II. After the defeat at Vienna in 1683, which had devastating effects on Ottoman empire, the energetic Sultan Mustafa II tried to regain the military initiative in the Balkans.
       The first document is dated 24 Dhu l-Qa¦da 1108 (May 14, 1697). It states that the mint had eight employees and workers and lists their duties and some of their tools. The second document from 11 Dhu l-Qa¦da 1108 (May 2, 1697) is a receipt for the 200 eshrefi gold coins with a value of 60,000 akÚes which were delivered to the treasury by Ali Aga - the supervisor of the Imperial Army Mint. The third document of 29 Dhu l-Hijja 1109 (June 11, 1698) is a receipt for the 2,500 Esedi silver kurush pieces with a value of 400,000 akÚes, which Mustafa Efendi - the supervisor of the Imperial Army Mint - delivered to the accounting department.
       One eshrefi gold coin minted in Mustafa II’s Imperial Army Mint was published by Nuri Pere (no. 489). There has been no information on the mentioned Esedi coins. Since he knows of no other record of these coins in the Ottoman archives, the speaker concluded that the total number of coins minted at the Imperial Army Mint was 200 gold and 2,500 kurush pieces, which accounts for them being exceedingly rare nowadays. On January 26, 1699 the Treaty of Karlovitz was signed. Since there were no reports on the Imperial Army Mint after this date, the mint was probably closed down.
      The two days ended with a guided tour through the historical centre of the city, which, with its rich and diverse architectural heritage, reflects the historical developments from the 14th to the 20th century, while maintaining its basically medieval urban structure. The next meeting of the ONS will be organised by Lutz Ilisch, Research unit for Islamic Numismatics in TØbingen on the weekend of 6-7 May 2000.

      Stefan Heidemann

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